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A Brief Overview of the History of Plumbing

plumber repairing a leak

The modern plumbing system is an often overlooked but essential component of our day-to-day lives. It is difficult to imagine a life without flushing toilets or perfectly heated showers in our bathrooms!

But how did we get to where we are today? It took the work of some innovative plumbers Wellington based as plenty of mistakes as they need. Here are some achievements that have influenced modern-day plumbing.


Ancient plumbing systems

As it turns out, plumbing has a long history – dating back to around 4000 BCE! Archaeologists recently discovered the existence copper water pipes located in palace ruins in the Indus River Valley, India, suggesting that humans have been working as plumbers for a while. Similarly, copper pipes dating back to 2500 BCE were found in Egypt, where they were used in bathrooms, sewage and irrigation systems.

We can thank the Romans for the flush toilet; they were advanced plumbers who developed aqueducts, private and public baths, underground sewage systems, water piping, and even marble fixtures replete with gold and silver fittings. Their introduction of lead pipes in 500 BCE allowed for ground-breaking improvements in sanitation.

The island of Crete has also been found to be abundant with ancient plumbing dating back as far as 1500 BCE. Their plumbing system included a crude flushing toilet and a bathtub made of pottery. Additionally, rainwater cisterns were used as storage for drinking, cooking and bathing water.

It took quite a while for plumbing to catch on in Western Europe. Iron pipes emerged in Germany around 1455, and the first flush toilet was built in England in 1596 by Sir John Harington. Later in France in 1664, King Louis XIV had a cast-iron plumbing line built throughout his palace.

And New York? Well, it received its first underground sewer in 1728 after health officials decided to respond to people complaining about the scent of open sewers. By 1830, New York also had a public water main, which allowed for improved water supply for fire fighters throughout the city.


Modern-day plumbing

Plumbing as we know it today started to become big following the passing of the National Public Health Act in 1848. Since then, the majority of the globe has adopted this plumbing code.

Plumbing boomed over the next century or so, with drainage piping systems being fitted into buildings in order to move sewage to an appropriate disposal area. In the 1870s, water heaters started to be installed in private homes, and circulation pipes were used to ensure that pressurised hot water was made available in large amounts.

After the proving of venting theory in 1874, vent pipes started to be used at trap outlets to prevent foul odours and gases from leaking at the outlets. Laws started to be passed across large areas of the U.S. requiring systems to be installed using a minimum amount of fixtures. Next, people started to create hundreds of different flushing toilet designs, some of which would become U.S. standard. The formation of The Building Officials and Code Administrators in 1915 allowed for the coordination of plumbing codes on a national scale. A shortage of copper led to the use of plastic piping in modern plumbing in 1966.

By 1961, all facilities were required to be easily accessible to people with disabilities. The Americans with Disabilities Act was signed by President George Bush in 1990. Since then, the U.S. has adopted the Energy Policy Act which restricts rates of water flow in fixtures, and plumbing is now overseen by the International Code Council (ICC) rather than three separate agencies as it used to be.

3 Benefits Of Investing In Professional Container Unloading Services


If you operate any business that needs to store, ship and distribute large amounts of product or raw material then you will likely place a lot of importance on the efficiency and security of your logistical backend. There are several different ways you can improve your warehousing and one of them is to outsource your container unloading to a professional 3rd party firm like Pendulum Logistics.

There are numerous benefits to outsourcing this element of your backend that are potentially far reaching for your business. Let’s take a look at the 3 ways your business can benefit from investing in 3rd party container unloading services.


1.      Reduce lead times

The first major benefit of outsourcing your container unloading to a professional firm is that they will be able to complete the job much faster than your internal team. This is because they will be highly experienced and specifically trained in that type of work, so you won’t be able to find anyone who can do it faster.

This means you will be able to deliver products and materials where they need to be at a much faster rate. This time saving will snowball and allow your business to operate more efficiently, allowing you to save money at the same time.

You will be able to go to your partners and distributors and tell them that you can meet your delivery dates much faster than usual. This will give you extra leverage in potentially negotiating a better deal for your company.


2.      Reduced liability

Another benefit of outsourcing your container unloading to an outside firm is that the team that works on your behalf will be fully insured against injury and property damage. This means that if the worst should happen, your company won’t be dragged into a messy legal situation where you may be liable for damages.

It also means that if any of your products or materials are damaged or stolen, you can have the cost returned to you by their insurance company. This is a great way to reduce the risk associated with your backend logistics, especially if you are carrying highly valuable or delicate goods that are liable to be the victim of breakage or theft.


3.      Streamlined logistics

The long-term benefit of hiring container unloading services from an outside firm is that it will enable you to cut out the middle man and reduce your storage and security costs. You can use a 3rd part logistics firm to take over your container unloading and deliver your goods or materials directly to their next point in the supply chain, eliminating an entire phase of storage and added loading/unloading.

This means you can streamline your entire logistical backend so that it runs like clockwork – eliminating all possible redundancies and saving a great deal of money in the process. This money can be reinvested into other elements of your business that you need to be in direct control over.

All of this can be used as leverage in future negotiations to demonstrate your efficiency as a company. Stakeholders will be impressed by the fact you have ‘cut the fat’ from your supply chain.

Hopefully the above information will be useful to you in determining whether or not professional container unloading services are right for your company. They have the ability to streamline your logistics and save you a great deal of money in the process.



How You Can Book An After Hours GP In Your Area Instantly Online

doctor checking a patient's leg

There are all sorts of different things that can arise in life and for the most part, people are simply too busy to be able to deal with such things properly. For instance, someone may notice that something needs to be repaired in their home but will do their best to ignore from then on because there is no time in the day to take care of such a thing. While out of sight out of mind can sometimes be a handy method to follow, this is something that really shouldn’t be applied when it comes to one’s body and health.

For many, they will notice certain signs that something is going on with their health but once again will feel like they don’t have the time to take care of it and so will continue on with their busy schedule. This is something that people should not do when it comes to their health because when they leave something for too long, it could turn into something sinister. And so, to best help those with a busy schedule, here is how you can book an after hours GP in Instant Consult online.


People are able to book an after hours GP in their area instantly online by performing a Google search and finding a relevant company that offers this service

Just like everything else in this day and age, people are also able to find and book an after hours GP in their area by searching for this kind of service online. When people do this, they will be shown a bunch of different relevant options in search engine results which they are then able to browse through so that they are able to choose the best option for them. For instance, one person may need a medical professional to come to their home whereas another person will easily be able to drive to a 24-hour clinic.

Whatever the case may be, people are able to find a wide variety of suitable options when they get out their smart devices and have a good look on the internet. Some may even realise that they don’t need to see a medical professional at all and that they will be able to chat with someone over the phone. Others may even be able to order their prescription online and easily have it delivered to their home.


People are able to book an after hours GP in their area instantly by calling the company at hand when they aren’t internet savvy

While it can be quite mind blowing for people when they realise just how many different things are available online in modern times, there are some that aren’t quite as excited because they don’t consider themselves to be internet savvy people. But this doesn’t mean that they have to miss out on a slice of the action as they are able to search for such services in other ways. For instance, they may be able to ask a loved one to put together a list for them that they can then call in order to book an after hours GP in their area.

Others may be able to use printed directories like the YellowPages and are able to contact different clinics to see if they have any out of hours’ options. But however people decide to go about searching for such a service, it is simply important that they do so because they only get one body and it is their job to take care of it.

Avoid the 5 Most Common Aged Care Finance Mistakes

age care

As we get older, it’s important that we start to think about how to best manage our aged care finance matters. Things like paying for carers, maximising pension entitlements and affording a nursing home may need to be properly thought out.

Unfortunately, it is all too common to make mistakes and oversights that can cost you a lot of money (and lost time!) in the long-run. An aged care finance planner can help prevent you from making costly mistakes and ensure that you make the most of your monetary situation from the get-go.

Here are the 5 most common mistakes to avoid:


1.     Selling the family home

Selling the family home might seem like a good idea, but it can actually be the biggest mistake that families make. While you may want to do so in order to pay for the accommodation bond, it can wreak havoc on the person’s ability to get a pension. This is because social security services consider funds in the bank account left over from selling the home to be an asset. This means the person’s pension may be lowered or even completely lost.

To avoid this, contact your social security service or aged care finance advisor for more information.


2.     Not having a Will (or having an outdated one)

Before the person is ready to enter a nursing home it is crucial to have their Will put in place. Too often do families wait too late, or rely upon an outdated Will. This can cause a lot of distress to the family. It is important to assess the state of the Will and ensure that it is appropriately created or updated before the person enters a nursing home. An aged care finance advisor may be able to help further.


3.     Not getting a power of attorney

It’s essential not to wait until it’s too late and ensure that you register a power of attorney (POA) for your relative before they enter a nursing home. If the relative loses their mental capacity (whether by Alzheimer’s, stroke or the like) and they don’t have a POA, the family could lose their ability to take care of their monetary affairs. This is a big error that can easily be avoided.


4.     Not seeking aged care finance advice

Unless you have few or no assets, getting some wealth planning advice can be incredibly useful and can save you a lot of money and hassle. If you or the relative you are helping owns a property, has a pension or superannuation income, annuities, shares, investments, large amounts of cash or trusts, it is strongly encouraged to seek monetary advice. Entering a nursing home can affect things like tax and pensions, so it’s important to get proper advice.


5.     Not negotiating

Many nursing homes can charge upwards of $500,000 for a bond. While this will be refunded after death, it is still an incredibly large aged care finance sum to pay. As a result of this large figure, you’ll be surprised at how willing facilities are to negotiate some of the fees with you. It is important to make the most of this opportunity by negotiating. A wealth advisor can help you determine which fees can be lowered or even waived entirely.



It is important to make the best out of your aged care finance situation. Seeking advice from a professional wealth planner can save you a lot of hassle and lost expenses down the track. Make sure to avoid these common mistakes by planning ahead and getting proper advice.

5 Questions You Need To Ask When Installing A Hot Water Cylinder


If you’re in need of a new hot water cylinder, then it’s best to get in contact with your local plumber as soon as possible. Having said this, the installation is not a process you want to rush. There are plenty of options available and it’s best to discuss these with your trusted plumber. So, if you’re in the process of installing a hot water cylinder in your home, here are several questions you need to ask your plumber before they proceed.


What model should I go for?

There are plenty of models available to you, however, your choice will be predicated on what type of fuel you have access to. If you have access to gas, then a natural gas system is probably the best model for you, in terms of both ongoing costs and efficiency. If you have a solar system in place already, then sticking with that is probably your best bet. However, if you have found that your solar hot water cylinder has been underperforming recently, consult with your plumber to see if an alternative option is possible.

Most homes tend to have electric systems in place, so in terms of installation, electric models are generally easier to install and get up and running. They are also quite reliable, so if you want to minimize your costs on maintenance and upkeep, an electric system could be the way to go.


How can I minimize my carbon footprint?

Naturally, more and more consumers are more ethically inclined, choosing to go with a hot water cylinder that produces fewer carbon emissions. While electric systems are still commonplace, they are becoming less popular because of their higher emissions. In fact, gas devices produce a cleaner heat and are viewed as being much better for the environment, much like a solar powered system. However, if a solar-powered system is too expensive, remember that a gas hot water cylinder is still environmentally friendly.


How many litres do I need?

This question is probably one of the most important. If you live by yourself or with your partner/roommate or one guardian, then you don’t need a hot water cylinder that can supply a whole family. Generally, a single tank will suffice for a household consisting of 1 to 3 people. However, if you have a larger family (4+), your best bet is a more comprehensive storage tank system. It’s also important to consider your family’s lifestyle habits and whether other people will be using your system on a frequent basis (i.e. family friends, child’s boyfriend/girlfriend etc.)


What can I afford with my budget?

You should ask your plumber what type of models are available within your price range. Generally, gas systems are more expensive to install initially, however, you reap the benefits of better energy efficiency. Basically, you’ll end up making the money back via cheaper energy bills at the end of every month. You also benefit from the fact that gas systems only heat as you use the liquid, so you’re not burning money on a tank that is heating throughout the day. An electric system is far cheaper to install, however, you need to recognise that your energy bills could well be higher because the device is not as energy efficient.


Where will it fit?

Logistically, a larger hot water cylinder can be a nightmare to install because you might not have the available space. For example, a large tank will likely need to be outside to account for excess drainage. An indoor hot water cylinder poses the risk of flooding, which can lead to a lot of internal damage. At the end of the day, your plumber will be able to suggest the best location for your storage tank.


Why Your Home Deserves the Services of a Rubbish Removal

garbage bins

A clean environment is safe and habitable. Everyone deserves such space so that he or she can be sure that the environment serves him or her well. A place where you stay should be treated with the best way possible because if it is not clean, it may impact on you in a manner that you may not like. Let’s say that you have recently demolished one of your building and your compound in that case looks pathetic, will you demean yourself into cleaning the hazardous litter? No, you do not need to do all that. Doing so will be exposing yourself to danger of getting infected with the diseases.

For that reason, you need to think of hiring experts that can get rubbish removed in Sydney who have the skills on how to collect, transport and dispose the wastes in the manner that cannot harm anyone. The professional will be able to know how and when to dispose the garbage and he or she has the better mechanization for all of the requirements of the litter. This is the reason why the garbage collection should not stress you at all. The following benefits are associated with the best rubbish removal services;


Health concerns

Your health should come first before anything else. This means that anything that shall try to interfere with your health should be dealt with in the face. If your home or place of work is characterized with dirt, you can rest assured that the infections are on the way. This is because of the fact that the rubbish is able to attract the disease causing organisms. If for instance you have food left overs, you can be pretty assured that it will have to attract the flies. The flies are well known to be the vectors of diseases like the cholera. For that reason, you need to invest in the best professional junk elimination services to save you from the possible infections.


Aesthetic value

A home should be very attractive and conducive for the visitors and relatives who normally visit it. You can only attain the highest level of aesthetics if you invest a lot in the cleaning, collection and disposal of the garbage. You expect compliments on how your home looks clean and habitable. If this is your desire, it is then the right time that you contact the most renowned waste removal services near your place so that you can enjoy a clean and beautiful environment. This is all that you deserve for you to be able to take care of your family without being doubtful of any condition.


Attractive environment

You will definitely wish your home to stand out from the rest. You therefore need to do peculiar things that will make it stand out from those of your neighbors. If your neighbors are doing the cleanliness by themselves, can you try to hire a professional rubbish removal so that you can make a comparison? You will realize how much you have been missing all along.



4 Different Types Of Scaffolding


Scaffolding is a temporary structure on the outside of a building that is usually made from wooden planks and metal poles. This equipment is often used by workmen during construction jobs such as building, repairing and cleaning. This scaffold can be used both on residential and commercial jobs.

What many people don’t realize is that there are many different types of working platforms. Keep reading to find out the names and purposes of some of the most common types.


Type 1: Single

Single scaffolding is sometimes known as brick layers scaffolding. As the name indicates, the primary use for this type of working structure is to assist with brick masonry.

This type of structure is generally assembled parallel to the wall in which it is supporting; usually at a distance of about 1.2 metres away. Single structures are comprised of standards, ledgers and putlogs.

With this type of platform, the aim is not only to support the structural integrity of the building, but also to assist the tradespeople by helping them reach the desired height.


Type 2: Cantilever

This type of scaffolding is often referred to as a single frame type structure, and therefore it is quite different to many other working platforms. The standards are supported on needles, which are then attached through holes in the wall.

Cantilever structures are not considered as being the most stable type of support structure; this is why they are only used in certain situations. The most common use for these platforms is when the ground is unable to support the standards. Another frequent use for cantilever platforms is when the ground near the wall needs to be free from traffic and when the upper part of the wall is under construction.


Type 3: Steel

As the name suggests, this type of scaffolding is made out of steel. The working platform is made from steel tubes which are then fitted together with steel couplers. This form of structure is renowned for being easy and quick to assemble and disassemble, which makes it a perfect choice for construction sites and projects that will not take very long to complete.

Steel structures are also incredibly durable and are even fire resistant. Furthermore, these types of working platforms are known for being stronger and safer than many of the other options currently on the market.

One disadvantage of these structures is that they are more expensive than many other forms of scaffolding. Despite this, their high safety rating and durability mean that they are one of the most widely used forms of working platform worldwide.


Type 4: Suspended

Suspended scaffolding is different from the other types of working structure for one main reason; it is attached to the roof of the building instead of the floor. Suspended structures work through the use of a rope and pully system and are incredibly useful due to the fact that they can be easily raised or lowered. This makes it easy to reach the needed working height.

Whilst many other forms of working platform are used as a support for the building, suspended are most commonly used for repair work or cleaning. They do not help to support the building and therefore would not be of use if the structural integrity is compromised. Oftentimes, this type of working platform is used for jobs such as window cleaning on large commercial buildings.

As indicated above, there are several different types of working platform, and what many people don’t realise is that each of these has a specific job. The type of working platform used on a construction site will depend on what it is needed for, the height it is needed to reach and how many workers will be using it. It is important to note that working platforms are an integral building tool, meaning it is often challenging, or impossible to build, repair or clean without them. Whilst working platforms are useful, if used improperly they can be dangerous; therefore, it is important to ensure that they are being used in the correct way with all the safety procedures being followed.



Can You Find Value With Demolition Services in Sydney?


How would you judge demolition services in Sydney when it came to the return on investment (ROI)?

Simply arriving on schedule to bulldoze a property is one part of the transaction that is accepted, but there are some many other factors at play before, during and after this project has run its course.

Clients from a commercial or residential profile will have their own idea about what they can expect, but in the market of Sydney there are added advantages to sourcing a provider that goes above and beyond the call of duty.

They might be small touches or little details that go underappreciated at the time, but in the overall scheme they can make a big difference.

Let us outline whether or not you are finding value with your demolition expert.


Do They Offer a Free Quote?

Before you agree to any terms and conditions from demolition services in Sydney that promote their expertise to you as a client, it is vital that you have the ability to access an obligation-free quote. That is an offering that will be devoid of any fees or agreement that you proceed with a transaction.


Do They Cater to Permits On Your Behalf?

No one can proceed with a demolition simply because they require one for their home or office. Demolition services in Sydney have to have written agreements passed through local council before any such project can go ahead, allowing neighbors, streets and nearby office buildings that such an event will be taking place during a scheduled development time. If you as the client have to go chasing this paperwork, then that is time and money lost.


Do They Have Temporary Housing/Storage Networks?

There are seldom occasions where demolition services in Sydney either have direct or indirect contacts with certain outlets that will allow for temporary housing or storage of items. The demolition will obviously result in the displacement of a location and with a number of different home and storage outlets situated around the city of Sydney, cutting out another search endeavour can give you peace of mind and value for your investment.


Is Their Operating Model Flexible or Static?

The original scope of a project may have to change for demolition services in Sydney and these events will test whether or not they are flexible or static with their operating model. When a client requires a premise to be bulldozed to make way for an extension or renovation, that movement can expose a number of underlying issues that will require an entire clearance of the location. It is in that moment that the service will have to communicate to the home or office owner about the expansion of the project and how they can go about paying for this overhaul.


Do They Remove Rubbish For You?

The final aspect that should be focused on when it comes to demolition services in Sydney and the idea of value is the waste disposal element. Do they take out the trash after they have bulldozed and demolished the site to a million pieces? You can be sure after any project of this nature there will be broken parts of debris, trash bags, dirt, pieces of rock and more lying around the premises.



Value is in the eye of the beholder when it comes to judging the merits of demolition services in Sydney. Domestic and commercial clients alike won’t be short of options for companies in this industry. The challenge though for individuals is identifying a brand that will communicate effectively and operate in a clear, concise and careful manner that gets the project done within the specified timeframe and within budget. Speak to peers, friends and colleagues about which organisation will match their expectations.


Find A Friendly Company That Will Help Prepare You For An OT Driving Assessment


When it comes to completing something as important as an OT driving assessment, it is vital to remain as calm and collected as possible. While some will become stressed when they find themselves in this kind of situation, there is no use in worrying about things that cannot be changed. What people can do, however, is educate themselves as much as possible so they are feeling confident on the day of their appointment.

In addition to this, people can educate themselves on the topic as a whole. For instance, what the potential outcomes may be as well as steps that people can take when they are wanting to work towards getting back on the road. Another great thing that people can do is to find a friendly company that will help them prepare.

What people may not realize is that they are able to choose the business that offers this kind of service which means that they are able to find a company that is nurturing and that has great customer service. This alone can be incredibly important for someone who is suffering from some kind of ailment. As this is the case, here is a closer look at the topic as well as why people should find a friendly company that will help prepare them for an OT driving assessment.


Find a company that will help you understand exactly what is involved with an OT driving assessment

One of the best ways to prepare for something of this caliber is by ensuring that everything is completely understood. For instance, many people believe that they are being punished by having to take an OT driving assessment but this is certainly not the case. Many people are referred to participate in this as they may need some kind of safety equipment installed in their vehicle to ensure that they are remaining safe on the roads.


In addition to this, when people don’t know what to expect they can find themselves feeling quite anxious leading up to their appointment. This can lead to them performing badly on the day and may experience the outcome that they are trying to avoid. As this can be the case, a good company will explain in detail what to expect on the day as well as all of the possible outcomes that may arise.


Find a company that will educate you on the different things that can be done to prepare for an OT driving assessment

Another great thing that people can do in order to feel more calm and collected on the day is to find a company that will educate them on the things that can be done to prepare for an OT driving assessment. For instance, people can usually take small courses that will help them become acquainted with a motor vehicle once again. In addition to this, it may be advised that people work with an exercise physio before their app so that they can be taught about how to sit and adjust their seat in a vehicle.

Having said this, the person who is conducting the driving assessment may be an occupational therapist who is able to offer such advice and feedback anyway. For instance, it may be recommended that someone obtains an eye test before they resit another test. Others may need some other kind of medical treatment before they can return to the roads.

Whatever the case may be, it is important that people take this assessment seriously but that they aren’t making themselves sick with stress in the meantime.

How To Know When It Is Time To Organise A Tree Inspection Report For Your Home Or Place Of Business


There can be different circumstances in life that arise in which someone will have to implement the services of a professional tree doctor. This is a trained professional who is able to come to someone’s home or place of business to conduct an official tree inspection report. This documentation is then commonly used when someone wants to make some kind of council application.

Having said this, not all councils need this kind of documentation when someone wants to renovate or extend a property and so it is always best for people to check with their local council before they organize the services of a tree doctor. While this is the most common reason why someone would want to organize a tree inspection report, there can be other occasions as well. For instance, someone may be unsure of the type of tree species that are on their property and so may wish to find this information out.

As this is isn’t necessarily a cheap service, this article will discuss how to know when it is time to organize a tree inspection report for your home or place of business.


It may be time to organize a tree inspection report for your home or place of business when you suspect a pest issue


What some people out there may not realize is that trunks are also able to become infested with pests or diseases. In some cases, these issues can quickly spread to surrounding greenery which can cause a whole host of further issues. Because of this, if someone notices some discoloration or droopiness, it may be time to organize a tree inspection report.

When people organize such examinations, they are not only able to get a better idea of the details of their greenery such as the age and height, but they are also able to ensure that their plants are free from different kinds of ailments that could cause the plant to become sick and die. As it is so important to take care of native species, this can be extremely valuable knowledge.

As there are so many different kinds of pests, there are some that can be treated if caught in time. This means that other items in someone’s home or place of business are less likely to be effective and people are able to have peace of mind knowing that that are doing everything possible to protect the nature areas on their property.


It can be a good idea to organise a tree inspection report when you move into a new property

When someone purchases a new property, it can sometimes be hard for them to know exactly what they are getting. For instance, they may end up with some unknown issue that wasn’t initially detected. Similarly, they may end up with certain species of trees that cannot be removed.

As this is the case, it is usually the best move to organise a tree inspection report right off the bat. This way people can get a clear understanding of the greenery that they have inherited and what they are within their rights to do with it. For instance, some items they may be able to prune but won’t be able to remove.

Conversely, some items may be considered weeds or pests as they are introduced species and so will be okay to remove. Whatever the case may be, this can only be figured out by working with a qualified tree doctor. So as it can be seen, it may be time to do this when people move into a new home or place of business.





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